Just an easy referral blog with some definitions.
Aperture controls the amount of light that enters the lens. It is the hole or opening in which light goes through. The lower the F-stop the higher the Aperture.
Aperture also controls the depth of field, the lower the F-stop, the more shallow the depth of field.
Img from http://photography.tutsplus.com
Shutter speed is the length of time your shetter is open. This is measured in fractions of a second. 1/4 shutter speed is a long shutter speed where as 1/200 is a faster shutter speed.
The faster your shutter speed, the less light you are letting in, your image will be darker but you can get a clear image in motion.
To get more light in an image, or a smooth buttery affect on moving water, you want a slow shutter speed, 1/10, 1/4, etc.
ISO is the speed that your camera’s sensor reacts to light. The lower the ISO, the less light and noise in the image (greater image quality). The greater the ISO, the brighter the image, but you gain noise and lose image quality.
White balance is adjusted to get your image colour as accurate as you can. I don’t suggest going by the camera presets because they won’t always be accurate. Use the number under each preset as a guideline and adjust from there under K (Kelvin)
Hope these help !